Assessment of Potential Impacts of Climate-induced Water Shortage on Grain Production and Food Security in Pakistan.
Severe climate change is making World weather uncertain due to increased pressure of demographic and environmental factors. Greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions are drastically increasing throughout the world. Warm atmosphere, decrease in snowfall and ice, rising sea level, unpredicted changes in precipitation and greenhouse gasses concentrations are causing extreme weather and climatic events. Periodic variations of climate change may have a significant impact on water, agriculture, forestry, food supply, human health, ecological zones and finally the global economy. Ruin effect of higher temperature on geographic locations cause unanticipated rainfall and loss in snowfall, floods, and water shortage, which as a consequence adversely affect agriculture, food production and distribution. Water resources are depleting with climate change and becoming most important concerns over the world. The gap between supply and demand of water is increasing due to the climate change. Pakistan classifies as water scarce country that is directed toward absolute water scarce if adequate measures not taken. Monsoon variations and intensity also cause disparity in water availability for irrigation. The increase in temperature is leading dry regions towards droughts. Pakistan is highly vulnerable and at high risk due to vague precipitation predictions. Loss of snow cover results in river flow reductions which are reliable and stable source of irrigation. Water runoff in summers causes floods and creates considerable reductions in dry season flow.
The decrease in water availability, resulted from climate change, is a major issue to study which is generating food insecurity by affecting the agriculture productivity. Study intends to make a healthy endeavor in analyzing the climate change effects on irrigation water for agriculture grain production in Pakistan. Assessment of the climate change impacts on water resources and agriculture grain production are planned to put together. Some policy measures to adopt climate change for enhancing water availability, better quantity and quality of agriculture grain production are intended to design.
Comparative Economics of Bt vs. Conventional Cotton Production in District Toba Tek Singh and Food Security Concerns under various Scenarios of Bt Cotton Production.